The differences between necrosis and apoptosis

Discuss the differences between necrosis and apoptosis; must include explanation of what each is and why they occur. 2. Discuss how decreased plasma oncotic pressure can or can not contribute to interstitial edema. 3. Interpret the following arterial blood gas and explain your interpretation. Is compensation occurring, why or why not? pH 7.3, CO2 32, HCO3 23 4. Explain the concepts of clonal selection and clonal diversity. 5. Explain the difference between pathologic and physiologic. 6. Explain recessive and dominant genetic disease transmission, what is a carrier? 7. Why is type IV hypersensitivity different than types I, II and III?

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Necrosis and apoptosis

Necrosis is a form of cell death that is characterized by uncontrolled cell swelling and eventually rupture. It is often caused by acute injury to cells, such as trauma, infection, or ischemia (lack of oxygen). Necrosis is typically associated with inflammation, as the release of cellular contents can trigger an immune response.

Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that is characterized by a series of orderly events that lead to the disassembly of the cell. It is a normal and necessary process that occurs throughout the life of an organism.

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Apoptosis is involved in development, tissue homeostasis, and immune function.

Differences between necrosis and apoptosis

Feature Necrosis Apoptosis
Cell death process Uncontrolled Controlled
Cell swelling Yes No
Cell rupture Yes No
Inflammation Yes No
Cause Acute injury Normal physiological process or external signals

2. Decreased plasma oncotic pressure and interstitial edema

Plasma oncotic pressure is the pressure exerted by colloids in the plasma, such as proteins, that draws fluid from the interstitial spaces (spaces between cells) into the blood vessels. When plasma oncotic pressure decreases, fluid can shift from the blood vessels into the interstitial spaces, leading to edema (swelling).

Causes of decreased plasma oncotic pressure:

  • Hypoalbuminemia (low albumin levels)
  • Hypoglobulinemia (low globulin levels)
  • Severe burns
  • Kidney disease
  • Liver disease

Interstitial edema is the accumulation of fluid in the interstitial spaces. It can cause swelling of the tissues, which can be painful and uncomfortable. Severe edema can also interfere with organ function.

3. Interpretation of arterial blood gas

Arterial blood gas (ABG) is a test that measures the pH, oxygen, and carbon dioxide levels in the blood. It is used to assess respiratory function and acid-base balance.

The ABG values provided are:

  • pH: 7.3 (normal range: 7.35-7.45)
  • CO2: 32 mmHg (normal range: 35-45 mmHg)
  • HCO3: 23 mEq/L (normal range: 22-26 mEq/L)


The pH is slightly acidic, which indicates respiratory acidosis. The CO2 level is elevated, which confirms respiratory acidosis. The HCO3 level is low, which is consistent with respiratory acidosis.


Respiratory compensation is occurring. The kidneys are trying to compensate for the respiratory acidosis by retaining HCO3. However, the compensation is not adequate to completely correct the acidosis.


The patient is experiencing respiratory acidosis. Respiratory compensation is occurring, but it is not adequate to completely correct the acidosis.

4. Clonal selection and clonal diversity

Clonal selection is the process by which B cells and T cells are selected to respond to specific antigens. When a B cell or T cell encounters its specific antigen, it becomes activated and proliferates, forming a clone of cells that are all specific for that antigen.

Clonal diversity is the variety of different B cells and T cells that are present in the body. This diversity allows the immune system to respond to a wide range of different antigens.

Clonal selection and clonal diversity are essential for the effective functioning of the adaptive immune system.

5. Pathologic and physiologic

Pathologic refers to disease or disorder. Physiologic refers to normal or healthy.

Examples of pathologic conditions include:

  • Cancer
  • Infection
  • Autoimmune disease

Examples of physiologic conditions include:

  • Pregnancy
  • Exercise
  • Digestion

6. Recessive and dominant genetic disease transmission, carrier

Recessive genetic disease transmission:

Recessive genetic diseases are caused by mutations in both copies of a gene. A person who inherits one mutated copy of the gene is a carrier of the disease, but they do not have the disease themselves. To have the disease, a person must inherit two mutated copies of the gene.

Examples of recessive genetic diseases include:

  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Tay-Sachs disease

Dominant genetic disease transmission:

Dominant genetic diseases are caused by mutations in one copy of a gene. A person who inherits one mutated copy of the gene will have the disease.

Examples of dominant genetic diseases include:

  • Huntington’s disease
  • Achondroplasia
  • Marfan syndrome


A carrier of a genetic disease is a person who has one mutated copy of the gene for that disease. Carriers do not have the disease themselves, but they can pass the mutated gene on to their children.

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