Public Health

  1. Explain the historical development and contemporary context of public health
    (including the infrastructure and organization of public health systems).
  2. Critically examine the role of public health in protecting and promoting the health
    of populations locally and globally.
  3. Analyze social, political, and economical issues, which impact public health and
    healthcare delivery systems within and outside of the United States.
  4. Explain the biological effects of infections and chronic diseases on the human
  5. Explain basic epidemiological principles used to study patterns of disease and
    injury among diverse populations.
  6. Evaluate health-related research and research methods.
  7. Analyze the theoretical models including how social, behavioral, cultural, and
    environmental factors impact behavior change.
  8. Demonstrate the skills necessary to create effective public health programs and
    services (including program planning, healthcare management, and program
  9. Analyze legal, regulatory, and ethical issues that impact public health practice.
  10. Articulate how public health policy is developed and how individuals and groups
    influence policy change.
  11. Demonstrate effective communication and problem-solving skills necessary for
    addressing contemporary global public health issues and to promote social

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Sample Answer


Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of people and communities. It is concerned with preventing disease, promoting healthy behaviors, and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare.

Historical Development of Public Health

The history of public health is long and complex. It can be traced back to the ancient Greeks and Romans, who developed some of the earliest public health interventions, such as sanitation systems and quarantines. However, public health as a modern science did not really emerge until the 19th century, when a number of factors, including the Industrial Revolution, urbanization, and the rise of infectious diseases, led to a growing focus on the health of populations.

Full Answer Section


In the 19th century, public health professionals developed a number of important interventions, including vaccination, water sanitation, and sewage treatment. These interventions helped to reduce the incidence of infectious diseases and improve the overall health of populations.

In the 20th century, public health continued to evolve. New challenges emerged, such as chronic diseases and environmental pollution. Public health professionals responded to these challenges by developing new interventions, such as smoking cessation programs, air pollution regulations, and food safety laws.

Contemporary Context of Public Health

Today, public health is more important than ever. The world is facing a number of major health challenges, including climate change, antimicrobial resistance, and emerging infectious diseases. Public health professionals are working to address these challenges by developing new interventions and policies.

Infrastructure and Organization of Public Health Systems

Public health systems vary from country to country. However, most public health systems have a number of common components, including:

  • A central government agency that is responsible for public health policy
  • Local health departments that are responsible for implementing public health programs
  • Public health laboratories that conduct research and testing
  • Public health education and outreach programs
  • Public health surveillance systems that track the incidence of diseases

Role of Public Health in Protecting and Promoting Health

Public health plays a vital role in protecting and promoting the health of populations. It does this by:

  • Preventing disease
  • Promoting healthy behaviors
  • Ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare

Public health interventions can be very effective in preventing disease. For example, vaccination programs have helped to eradicate smallpox and polio. Public health education programs can also be effective in promoting healthy behaviors, such as smoking cessation and safe sex. And ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare is essential for improving the overall health of populations.

Social, Political, and Economical Issues Impacting Public Health

A number of social, political, and economical issues impact public health. These include:

  • Poverty
  • Inequality
  • Lack of access to healthcare
  • Discrimination
  • War and conflict
  • Environmental degradation

These issues can make it difficult for people to live healthy lives. For example, poverty can make it difficult for people to afford healthy food and housing. Inequality can lead to poor health outcomes for marginalized groups. Lack of access to healthcare can prevent people from getting the care they need. Discrimination can lead to health disparities. War and conflict can disrupt public health systems and lead to the spread of disease. Environmental degradation can lead to the emergence of new diseases and the spread of existing diseases.

Biological Effects of Infections and Chronic Diseases on the Human Body

Infections and chronic diseases can have a significant impact on the human body. Infections can cause a variety of symptoms, including fever, rash, cough, and shortness of breath. They can also lead to more serious complications, such as pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis. Chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, and diabetes, can also cause a variety of symptoms and complications. They can also reduce life expectancy and quality of life.


Public health is a complex and challenging field. However, it is also a field with the potential to make a real difference in the world. By working to prevent disease, promote healthy behaviors, and ensure that everyone has access to quality healthcare, public health professionals can improve the health of populations and make the world a healthier place.

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