Gender-based violence is a persistent problem all over the world.

The readings this week outline the wide variety of presentations of gender-based violence. We frequently focus on one type of violence at a time: domestic or intimate partner violence, sexual assault at colleges or in the military, honor killings, or rape as an instrument of war, for example. It is more instructive, however, to think of all of these types of violence as connected.
Recently, there has also been a greater focus on the rate of violence (and self-harm) among transgender people, particularly young people, and also on the extent of under-reported gendered violence against men, much of it also perpetrated by men.
Based on your reading for this week, respond to the following:
First, define what we mean by “gender-based violence.” Why not just “violence?”
Why have we focused primarily on gender-based violence against women? Do you agree with adding violence against men and transgender people, or do you see these as separate phenomena? What (if anything) connects all of these types of violence?
How do intersectional identities such as age, sexuality, gender non-conformity, or race affect experiences of gender-based violence?
What purposes does gender-based violence serve in a society? Provide at least two examples.
After everything you read for this week, define the one or two most important societal factors that you believe lead to gender-based violence. How can we address these factors? Are boys and men predisposed to commit gender-based violence? What needs to happen to make a significant dent in the rates of gender-based violence?
Sources you can use:
“Violence and Abuse” from Lumen Learning
“Normative Cruelties and Gender Deviants: The Performative Effects of Bully Discourses for Girls and Boys in School,” by J. Ringrose and E. Renold
“Who is Doing What to Whom? Determining the Core Aggressor in Relationships Where Domestic Violence Exists, fact sheet from the NCADV
“Violence against women—it’s a men’s issue:” Jackson Katz at TEDxFiDiWomen
The Facts on International Gender-Based Violence
“Trailer, Excerpts of ‘The Invisible War’,” documentary film about sexual assault in the military
“‘Invisible War’ Reveals Culture of Military Sexual Assault,” an interview with the filmmaker
“Military Bases, Gender at,” by Keerty Nakray from The SAGE Encyclopedia of War: Social Science Perspectives
“Sexual assault in the transgender community”
“Intimate Partner Violence or Elder Abuse? Considering Age, Gender and Elder Justice”
“Lesbian, Gay Male, Bisexual and Transgendered Elders: Elder Abuse and Neglect Issues,” by Loree Cook‐Daniels, Transgender Aging Network
Power and Control Wheel [considered the signature model illustrating the power and control tactics used in intimate partner violence]
Equality Wheel [illustrates a respectful relationship]

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