## Factors that affect the frequency of vibration

- Identify two factors that affect the frequency of vibration and describe the way in which each factor affects frequency.

a. *_____________________________________________*

b. *_____________________________________________*

is the restoring force that causes air particles to bounce back when displaced.*__________________*is the force which permits an air particle to move beyond its theoretical “resting” position during vibration.*___________________*- An amplitude spectrum displays
information as a function of*___________*. The amplitude spectrum of a complex periodic waveform is called a(n)*_____________*. The amplitude spectrum of an aperiodic complex waveform is called a(n)*_________________*.*______________________* - Deviation of a sinusoidal wave from the zero line to its peak or trough is known as
.*________________* - The time it takes for a complex quasi-periodicwaveform to complete one cycle of vibration is called
.*___________________* - What is the frequency of a sinusoidal waveform having a wavelength of 1.372 meters?
*______________* - If a speaker produces the vowel /u/ two times, first at an foof 230 Hz and then again at 250 Hz, the (TRANSFER FUNCTION / GLOTTALSOURCE / BOTH GLOTTAL SOURCE AND TRANSFER FUNCTION)has/have changed.
- Two 120 Hz sinusoidal waves, having peak-to-peak amplitudes of 0.0008 dynes/cm2and .0004 dynes/cm2are shifted in time by one-half period. These two waves are said to be
**_**degrees out-of-phase. Describe the waveform that would result if these two sound waves were added together:

TYPE OF WAVEFORM *___________________*

FREQUENCY *___________________*

PEAK AMPLITUDE *___________________*

- If a speaker produces the vowel /i/ at 100 Hz and then the vowel /u/ at 150 Hz, the ( TRANSFER FUNCTION / GLOTTAL SOURCE / BOTH GLOTTAL SOURCE AND TRANSFER FUNCTION )has/have changed.
- According to the Acoustic Transmission Line resonance model, the vocal tract can be modeled after a uniform tube which is closed at the
end and open at the*_**. This system is known as a(n)*resonator. It can only be applied to the resonance characteristics of one American English vowel:**____****_**. - During vowel production, the cross-sectional area of the vocal tract is determined by:
;*__________________*and*__________________*.*__________________* - Using the Double Helmholtz Resonatormodel, explain why, among American English vowels, F1 and F2 are maximally divergent for the vowel /i/.

A. Examine the waveforms below. They occur simultaneously in the same medium. Amplitude values are expressed in millivolts (mV). (20 points)

4.5

/ ŋ /

/ j /

/ s /

/ dʒ/

/ h /

/ w /

/ i /

/ tʃ /

/ Ө /

/ k /

TIME (msec)

For each waveform, describe the following (remember to include units of measurement):

Wave A Wave B

Period: *_**_*

Frequency: *_**_*

Peak Amplitude: *_**_*

Peak-to-peak Amplitude: *_**_*

Wavelength: *_**_*

Describe the phase relationship between:

Waves A and B. *____________________________*

In the space below draw the resulting waveform and spectrum (label both axes and provide units of measurement)

B. The figure below shows a few cycles of a sustained /a/ production at a speaker’s comfortable pitch and loudness. Amplitude is in milliVolts (mV) (20 points)

+12

-12

0 3.5 7

Time (ms)

- What is the fundamental period of this waveform?
*_* - What is the fundamental frequency of this waveform?
*_* - What is the period of the first harmonic?
*_* - What is the frequency of the first harmonic?
*__* - What is the frequency of the fifth harmonic?
*__* - What is the maximum peak-to-peak amplitude (in Volts)?
**__** - What is the maximum peak amplitude (in Volts)?
**__** - Compute the wavelength of this signal propagated in air (assuming normal atmospheric conditions)
*____* - Was this /a/ produced by an adult male, adult female, or child?
*__*