## Factors that affect the frequency of vibration

1. Identify two factors that affect the frequency of vibration and describe the way in which each factor affects frequency.

a. _____________________________________________

b. _____________________________________________

1. __________________ is the restoring force that causes air particles to bounce back when displaced. ___________________ is the force which permits an air particle to move beyond its theoretical “resting” position during vibration.
2. An amplitude spectrum displays ___________ information as a function of _____________. The amplitude spectrum of a complex periodic waveform is called a(n) _________________. The amplitude spectrum of an aperiodic complex waveform is called a(n) ______________________.
3. Deviation of a sinusoidal wave from the zero line to its peak or trough is known as ________________.
4. The time it takes for a complex quasi-periodicwaveform to complete one cycle of vibration is called ___________________.
5. What is the frequency of a sinusoidal waveform having a wavelength of 1.372 meters? ______________
6. If a speaker produces the vowel /u/ two times, first at an foof 230 Hz and then again at 250 Hz, the (TRANSFER FUNCTION / GLOTTALSOURCE / BOTH GLOTTAL SOURCE AND TRANSFER FUNCTION)has/have changed.
7. Two 120 Hz sinusoidal waves, having peak-to-peak amplitudes of 0.0008 dynes/cm2and .0004 dynes/cm2are shifted in time by one-half period. These two waves are said to be _ degrees out-of-phase. Describe the waveform that would result if these two sound waves were added together:

TYPE OF WAVEFORM ___________________

FREQUENCY ___________________

PEAK AMPLITUDE ___________________

1. If a speaker produces the vowel /i/ at 100 Hz and then the vowel /u/ at 150 Hz, the ( TRANSFER FUNCTION / GLOTTAL SOURCE / BOTH GLOTTAL SOURCE AND TRANSFER FUNCTION )has/have changed.
2. According to the Acoustic Transmission Line resonance model, the vocal tract can be modeled after a uniform tube which is closed at the _ end and open at the . This system is known as a(n) ____ resonator. It can only be applied to the resonance characteristics of one American English vowel: _.
3. During vowel production, the cross-sectional area of the vocal tract is determined by: __________________; __________________ and __________________.
4. Using the Double Helmholtz Resonatormodel, explain why, among American English vowels, F1 and F2 are maximally divergent for the vowel /i/.

A. Examine the waveforms below. They occur simultaneously in the same medium. Amplitude values are expressed in millivolts (mV). (20 points)

4.5
/ ŋ /
/ j /
/ s /
/ dʒ/
/ h /
/ w /
/ i /
/ tʃ /
/ Ө /
/ k /
TIME (msec)

For each waveform, describe the following (remember to include units of measurement):

Wave A Wave B

Period: _ _

Frequency: _ _

Peak Amplitude: _ _

Peak-to-peak Amplitude: _ _

Wavelength: _ _

Describe the phase relationship between:

Waves A and B. ____________________________

In the space below draw the resulting waveform and spectrum (label both axes and provide units of measurement)

B. The figure below shows a few cycles of a sustained /a/ production at a speaker’s comfortable pitch and loudness. Amplitude is in milliVolts (mV) (20 points)

+12

-12

0 3.5 7

Time (ms)

1. What is the fundamental period of this waveform? _
2. What is the fundamental frequency of this waveform? _
3. What is the period of the first harmonic? _
4. What is the frequency of the first harmonic? __
5. What is the frequency of the fifth harmonic? __
6. What is the maximum peak-to-peak amplitude (in Volts)? __
7. What is the maximum peak amplitude (in Volts)? __
8. Compute the wavelength of this signal propagated in air (assuming normal atmospheric conditions) ____