Deming’s, Juran’s, and Crosby’s philosophies about quality.

  1. Compare and contrast Deming’s, Juran’s, and Crosby’s philosophies about quality.
  2. What is the difference between quality control and quality assurance?
  3. Discuss the differences between a dimension and a metric. How are they related? How do they differ?
  4. Why is it important to assign weights to dimensions? What do the weights indicate?
  5. How does a weighted dimension score differ from a raw dimension score?
  6. What is the difference between the validity and reliability of a survey questionnaire?
  7. How might an affinity diagram assist in content analysis?
  8. Would “excellent product quality” be a strength for your firm if it was equivalent to the quality of competing products in the same market? Why or why not?

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W. Edwards Deming

  • Deming is considered the father of modern quality management. He is best known for his 14 points for management, which are a set of principles that organizations can follow to improve their quality.
  • Deming believed that quality should be built into products and services from the start, rather than trying to fix defects after they occur. He also believed that everyone in an organization is responsible for quality, not just quality inspectors.

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  • Deming’s philosophy is based on the following principles:
    • Constancy of purpose: Organizations should have a long-term commitment to quality improvement.
    • Adopting the new philosophy: Organizations should adopt a new philosophy of management that focuses on quality.
    • Cease dependence on inspection to achieve quality: Organizations should focus on preventing defects, rather than inspecting for them.
    • End the practice of awarding business on the basis of price alone: Organizations should consider the total cost of quality, not just the purchase price, when making purchasing decisions.
    • Improve constantly and forever every process for planning, production, and service: Organizations should continuously improve their processes.

Joseph Juran

  • Juran is another well-known quality expert. He is best known for his trilogy of quality, which consists of quality planning, quality control, and quality improvement.
  • Juran believed that quality is achieved through a systematic approach that involves planning, control, and improvement. He also believed that quality is everyone’s responsibility, not just the responsibility of quality inspectors.
  • Juran’s philosophy is based on the following principles:
    • Quality planning: Organizations should develop a quality plan that identifies their quality goals and objectives.
    • Quality control: Organizations should establish a system of quality control to ensure that products and services meet their quality standards.
    • Quality improvement: Organizations should continuously improve their quality processes.

Philip Crosby

  • Crosby is known for his “zero defects” philosophy of quality. He believed that organizations should strive to achieve zero defects, or perfect quality.
  • Crosby’s philosophy is based on the following principles:
    • Quality is defined as conformance to requirements: Quality is not about meeting or exceeding customer expectations, but rather about meeting requirements.
    • The cost of quality is the price of nonconformance: The cost of quality includes the cost of defects, rework, and scrap.
    • The prevention of defects is always better than their detection: It is more cost-effective to prevent defects from occurring than to detect and fix them after they occur.
    • Zero defects is achievable: It is possible to achieve zero defects if organizations have a commitment to quality and are willing to make the necessary changes.


The three philosophies share some similarities, but they also have some key differences. Deming and Juran both believe that quality is everyone’s responsibility and that it should be built into products and services from the start. However, Deming’s philosophy is more focused on prevention, while Juran’s philosophy is more focused on control and improvement. Crosby’s philosophy is the most extreme of the three, as it calls for zero defects.

Quality control (QC) and quality assurance (QA) are two closely related concepts that are often confused. However, there is a key difference between them. Quality control is the process of preventing defects from occurring, while quality assurance is the process of ensuring that products and services meet their quality standards.

QC is typically focused on the production process, while QA is typically focused on the finished product. QC typically involves using statistical methods to identify and eliminate potential defects. QA typically involves testing products and services to ensure that they meet their quality standards.

Dimensions and metrics are two terms that are often used interchangeably, but they have slightly different meanings. A dimension is a characteristic of a product or service. A metric is a measure of a dimension.

For example, the dimensions of a car might be its length, width, height, and weight. The metrics of a car might be its fuel efficiency, horsepower, and acceleration.

Dimensions and metrics are related in that they are both used to describe products and services. However, dimensions are more general, while metrics are more specific.

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